CONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGE IN POPULATION MINORITIES, ISOLATES AND MIGRANTS
Region/country Location/ community Collection period Study population Sample size Consanguinity(%) Consanguinity types Coefficient of inbreeding (a) Reference DOI/PMID/URL
North Africa                  
Morocco Marrakesh High Atlas 1985/89,1997/98 Household survey 438 21.9 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0093 Cherkaoui et al. (2005) DOI: 10.1007/BF02443058
  Knitra, Gharb 2001 Hospital outpatients 125 42.8 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0166 Attazagharti et al. (2006)  
  Rabat-Sal- Zemmour-Zaer 2004/05 Obstetric outpatients 263 20.2 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0191 Hami et al. (2007)  
  Rabat - University students 291 59.8 D1C,1C,2C 0.0279 Talbi et al. (2007)  
  Tanger, Ttouan 2014 University students 160 39.3 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0203 Hardouz et al. (2014) DOI: 10.9790/3008-09626167
  Ttouan, Mdiq-fnideq 2016/17 University students 201 25.4 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0117 Hajjaji et al. (2018) DOI: 10.19044/esj.2018.v14n25p63
                   
Sudan Tir, Dinka 1954 Household survey 375 - - 0.0015 Roberts (1956) https://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/humbiol/vol61/iss5/11/
  Nyertiti, Fur - Household survey 99 70.7 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0415 Bayoumi et al. (1985) DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.1330670408
  Nyertiti, Baggara - Household survey 46 71.7 1C,11/2C 0.0442 Bayoumi et al. (1985) DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.1330670408
                   
South Africa                  
Tristan da Cunha All-Island 1961 Pedigree analysis 267 - - 0.04 Roberts (1980)  
                   
North America                  
Canada New Brunswick, Bathhurst 1959 RC dispensation 686 4.8 1C,11/2C,2C 0.001 Freire-Maia (1968) DOI: 10.1080/19485565.1968.9987749
  Quebec, Gaspe 1959 RC dispensation 600 6 11/2C,2C 0.0012 Freire-Maia (1968) DOI: 10.1080/19485565.1968.9987749
  Newfoundland, Trepassey 1960/79 Pedigree analysis 545 - - 0.0032 Bear et al. (1988) DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.1320290324 
  Newfoundland, West Coast 1960/79 Pedigree analysis 613 - - 0.0171 Bear et al. (1988) DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.1320290324 
  Newfoundland, Southeast Labrador 1960/79 Pedigree 376 - - 0.0007 Bear et al. (1988) DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.1320290324 
                   
U.S.A. Kentucky, Beech Creek 1942 Household survey 107 18.7 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0061 Brown (1951) DOI: 10.1086/220940
  Ramah Navaho 1950/64 Pedigree analysis 1074 - - 0.0026 Spuhler & Kluckhohn (1989) PMID: 2699598
  New Mexico, Gallup 1959 RC dispensation 370 1.4 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0004 Freire-Maia (1968) DOI: 10.1080/19485565.1968.9987749
  Texas, Austin 1959 RC dispensation 675 1.3 1C,2C 0.0006 Freire-Maia (1968) DOI: 10.1080/19485565.1968.9987749
  Kansas, Mennonites 1980 Pedigree analysis 194 33 - 0.003 Moore (1987) DOI: 10.1080/19485565.1987.9988674
  Pennsylvania, Amish farmers 1950/- Pedigree analysis 909 - - 0.0012 Khoury et al. (1987) DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a114551
  Pennsylvania, Amish non-farmers 1950/- Pedigree analysis 1014 - - 0.0008 Khoury et al. (1987) DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a114551
  Boston, Gypsies 1980s Pedigree analysis 21 61.9 1C,2C,3C 0.017 Thomas et al. (1987) DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(87)92392-0
                   
South America                  
Brazil South, Amerindians 1959/60 Field study 465 13.1 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0052 Salzano (1961) PMID: 13745846
  South, Jewish 1959/60 Household survey 150 2.7 1C,11/2C 0.0013 Freire-Maia & Krieger (1963)  
                   
Central Asia                  
Tajikistan Urgut, Samarkand - Household survey - - - 0.028 Paradeeva & Revasov (1987) DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.1963.tb00778.x
  Taimyr, Nganasans 1974/6 Household survey 223 20 2C 0.0022 Goltzova (1981) PMID: 7195855
                   
Turkmenistan Ashkhabad - Household survey 1596 - - 0.0023 Revasov et al. (1983) PMID: 6223854
  Nochur - Household survey 600 - - 0.033 Revasov et al. (1984) PMID: 6238867
                   
Uzbekhistan Tersak IV - Household survey - - - 0.019 Ginter et al. (1980)  
  Tersak III - Household survey - - - 0.0078 Ginter et al. (1980)  
  Kizil-Ketman - Household survey - - - 0.0109 Ginter et al. (1980)  
  Zum - Household survey - - - 0.0158 Ginter et al. (1980)  
  Arab-Chona - Household Survey - - - 0.0271 Ginter et al. (1980)  
  Abron - Household survey - - - 0.0131 Ginter et al. (1980)  
                   
East Asia                  
Japan Kurodani 1968/ Household survey 83 9.6 1C,11/2C 0.0049 Yamamoto et al. (1972) PMID: 4675219 
  Okukurodani 1968/ Household survey 48 29.2 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0124 Yamamoto et al. (1972) PMID: 4675219 
  Arihara 1968/ Household survey 69 47.8 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0184 Yamamoto et al. (1972) PMID: 4675219 
  Mukugawa 1968/ Household survey 83 21.6 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0068 Yamamoto et al. (1972) PMID: 4675219 
  Aso 1968/ Household survey 95 15.8 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0084 Yamamoto et al. (1972) PMID: 4675219 
  Mishima I - Household survey 517 15.5 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0075 Fujiki et al. (1982) DOI: 10.1007/BF01993900
  Mishima II - Household survey 192 18.8 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0093 Fujiki et al. (1982) DOI: 10.1007/BF01993900
  Nuwajima I - Household survey 340 12.4 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0055 Fujiki et al. (1982) DOI: 10.1007/BF01993900
  Nuwajima II - Household survey 175 6.3 1C,11/2C,2C 0.003 Fujiki et al. (1982) DOI: 10.1007/BF01993900
  Okishima - Household survey 286 24.5 1C,11/2C,2C 0.011 Fujiki et al. (1982) DOI: 10.1007/BF01993900
  Midono - Household survey 54 16.7 1C,2C 0.0087 Fujiki et al. (1982) DOI: 10.1007/BF01993900
  Kurodani I - Household survey 85 9.4 1C,11/2C 0.0048 Fujiki et al. (1982) DOI: 10.1007/BF01993900
  Kurodani II - Household survey 48 29.2 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0124 Fujiki et al. (1982) DOI: 10.1007/BF01993900
  Arihana - Household survey 69 47.8 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0184 Fujiki et al. (1982) DOI: 10.1007/BF01993900
  Mukugawa - Household survey 83 22.9 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0075 Fujiki et al. (1982) DOI: 10.1007/BF01993900
  Azo - Household survey 95 17.9 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0097 Fujiki et al. (1982) DOI: 10.1007/BF01993900
  Tomiyama - Household survey 156 27.6 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0115 Fujiki et al. (1982) DOI: 10.1007/BF01993900
  Miyama-co - Household survey 271 15.7 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0066 Fujiki et al. (1982) DOI: 10.1007/BF01993900
                   
South Asia                  
India (South) Andhra Pradesh                
  Chittoor, Banjara (Lambani) 1972/3 Household survey 167 41.3 UN,1C 0.0299 Saheb & Naik (1983) https://www.jstor.org/stable/41919469
  Nelgonda, Banjara (Lambani) 1979/80 Household survey 113 10.6 1C 0.0066 Saheb & Naik (1983) https://www.jstor.org/stable/41919469
  East Godavari, Konda Reddis - - 137 51.8 UN,1C 0.0392 Veerraju (1978) https://openlibrary.org/books/OL4077891M/Medical_genetics_in_India
  East Godavari, Koya Doras I - - 154 51.3 UN,1C 0.0467 Veerraju (1978) https://openlibrary.org/books/OL4077891M/Medical_genetics_in_India
  East Godavari, Konda Reddis II - - 152 61.8 UN,1C,2C 0.0398 Veerraju (1978) https://openlibrary.org/books/OL4077891M/Medical_genetics_in_India
  East Godavari, Konda Kammaras - - 150 65.6 UN,1C 0.0571 Veerraju (1978) https://openlibrary.org/books/OL4077891M/Medical_genetics_in_India
  East Godavari, Koya Doras II - - 140 70.6 UN,1C,2C 0.049 Veerraju (1978) https://openlibrary.org/books/OL4077891M/Medical_genetics_in_India
  Vishakapatnam, Valmikis I - - 119 69.2 UN,1C - Veerraju (1978) https://openlibrary.org/books/OL4077891M/Medical_genetics_in_India
  Vishakapatnam, Valmikis II - - 119 52.1 UN,1C 0.0363 Veerraju (1978) https://openlibrary.org/books/OL4077891M/Medical_genetics_in_India
  Vishakapatnam, Bagathas - - 123 62.7 UN,1C 0.0427 Veerraju (1978) https://openlibrary.org/books/OL4077891M/Medical_genetics_in_India
  Vishakapatnam, Gadabas - - 128 60.2 UN,1C 0.0395 Veerraju (1978) https://openlibrary.org/books/OL4077891M/Medical_genetics_in_India
  Vishakapatnam, Khond     247 67.6 UN,1C 0.044 Bharathi (2014) https://scholar.archive.org/work/736omiiv2fecjnmufvncnjiflm
  Srikakulam, Savaras - - 100 72 - -    
  Adilabad, Kolams I - - 680 20 UN,1C 0.0157 Veerraju (1978) https://openlibrary.org/books/OL4077891M/Medical_genetics_in_India
  Adilabad, Kolams II - - 283 45.6 UN,1C 0.0287 Veerraju (1978) https://openlibrary.org/books/OL4077891M/Medical_genetics_in_India
  Adilabad, Raj Gonds - - 397 34.5 1C 0.0216 Veerraju (1978) https://openlibrary.org/books/OL4077891M/Medical_genetics_in_India
  Adilabad, Pardhans - - 114 53.5 1C 0.0334 Veerraju (1978) https://openlibrary.org/books/OL4077891M/Medical_genetics_in_India
  Adilabad, Andhs - - 99 22.2 UN,1C 0.0146 Veerraju (1978) https://openlibrary.org/books/OL4077891M/Medical_genetics_in_India
  Adilabad, Mathuras - - 93 6.5 UN,1C 0.0047 Veerraju (1978) https://openlibrary.org/books/OL4077891M/Medical_genetics_in_India
  Mahaboobnagar Chenchu, 1981 Household survey 504 26.4 UN,1C,11/2C 0.015 Sirajuddin & Basu (1984)  
                   
Karnataka Siddi, Hindu 1980/81 Household survey 47 38.3 UN,AN,1C,2C 0.0263 Vijayakumar & Malhotra (1983) DOI: 10.1086/202972
  Siddi, Muslim 1980/81 Household survey 65 46.2 UN,1C,2C 0.0269 Vijayakumar & Malhotra (1983) DOI: 10.1086/202972
  Siddi, Christian 1980/81 Household survey 156 24.4 UN,AN,1C,2C 0.0169 Vijayakumar & Malhotra (1983) DOI: 10.1086/202972
  Kodagu, Kodava - Household survey 535 2.4 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0014 Saheb et al. (1981) https://www.jstor.org/stable/41919421
  Kodagu, Amma Kodagu - Household survey 130 6.9 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0032 Saheb et al. (1981) https://www.jstor.org/stable/41919421
                   
Tamil Nadu North Arcot, Irular 1982 Household survey 216 44 UN,1C,11/2C 0.0334 Saheb & Bhanu (1983) https://www.jstor.org/stable/41919497
                   
Lakshadweep                  
  Koya 1961 Census 176 33.5 1C 0.021 Roychoudhury (1977)  
  Malmi 1961 Census 435 4.1 1C,11/2C 0.0021 Roychoudhury (1977)  
  Melacheri 1961 Census 1471 6.3 1C,2C 0.0039 Roychoudhury (1977)  
                   
India (West) Bombay, Irani 1961/72 Obstetric inpatients 195 22.1 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0091 Undevia & Balakrishnan (1978) https://openlibrary.org/books/OL4077891M/Medical_genetics_in_India
                   
Iran Khuzestan, SW Iran, Mandaean 2016 Household survey 137 61.3 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0364 Saadat & Zarghami (2017) DOI: 10.1017/S0021932017000207
                   
Pakistan North West Frontier Province (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) 1996 Household survey 143 21 1C,2C 0.0128 Abdulwahab & Ahmad (2005) DOI: 10.1080/09718923.2005.11892474
                   
West Asia                  
Iraq Hamawand, Kurds 1951 Household survey 21 57.1 UN,1C 0.0417 Barth (1954) https://www.jstor.org/stable/3630042
  South Kurdistan, Kurds 1951 Household survey 46 17.4 UN,1C 0.0122 Barth (1954) https://www.jstor.org/stable/3630042
                   
Israel Samaritans 1960 Household survey 28 46.4 1C,11/2C,2C 0.019 Bonn (1963) https://www.jstor.org/stable/41448589
  Cochin, Jews 1958 Household survey 59 15.3 UN,1C 0.0117 Goldschmidt (1963)  
                   
Lebanon Palestinians 1998 Household survey 3972 19.8 D1C,1C 0.0142 Pedersen (2002) DOI: 10.1159/000066333
                   
Jordan Palestinians 1996 National survey 4950 26.1 D1C,1C 0.0186 Pedersen (2002) DOI: 10.1159/000066333
  Palestinians 1999 Household survey 2888 26 D1C,1C 0.0178 Pedersen (2002) DOI: 10.1159/000066333
                   
Syria Palestinians 2001 Household survey 4195 18.3 D1C,1C 0.0134 Pedersen (2002) DOI: 10.1159/000066333
                   
East Europe                  
Slovakia Slovak, Roma I - Pedigree analysis 34 14.7 D1C,1C,11/2C 0.0184 Sivkov et al. (1994)  
  Slovak, Roma II - Pedigree analysis 69 10.1 D1C,1C,11/2C 0.0082 Sivkov et al. (1994)  
North Europe                  
Great Britain Orkney 1910/49 Parish records 63 9.5 1C,2C 0.0017 Roberts et al. (1979) DOI: 10.1017/s0021932000012475
  Colonsay 1977 Pedigree analysis 65 - - 0.0023 Sheets (1980) DOI: 10.1080/19485565.1980.9988413
  Jura 1977 Pedigree analysis 65 - - 0.0044 Sheets (1980) DOI: 10.1080/19485565.1980.9988413
  Eriskay, Hebrides 1960/79 RC dispensation 22 18.2 2C 0.0028 Robinson (1983) PMID: 6873914
  Welsh, Romany 1970s Pedigree analysis 99 36.3 1C,2C 0.0123 Williams & Harper (1977) DOI: 10.1136/jmg.14.3.172
  Birmingham, Pakistani 1982/83 Obstetric inpatients 260 46.9 1C 0.0293 Honeyman et al. (1987) DOI: 10.1136/adc.62.3.231
  Bradford, Pakistani - Obstetric inpatients 100 67 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0377 Darr & Model (1988) DOI: 10.1136/jmg.25.3.186
  Birmingham, Afro-Caribbean 1986/87 Obstetric inpatients 509 0.4 1C,2C 0.0002 Bundey et al. (1990) DOI: 10.1136/jech.44.2.130
  Bradford, Pakistani 2007/10 Antenatal clinic 5127 50.9 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0256 Bhopal et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckt166
                   
Ireland (Northern) All counties, Travellers 1989 Household/ itinerant survey 203 65.5 1C,<1C - Gordon et al. (1991) DOI: 10.1016/S0033-3506(05)80598-0
                   
Ireland (Republic) Westmeath, Travellers 1970/86 Household/ itinerant 141 71.6 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0312 Flynn (1986) PMID: 3804674
                   
Norway Pakistani 1967/93 Civil registration 7274 31 >1C,1C 0.0194 Stoltenberg et al. (1998) DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009670
  Pakistani (Pakistan-born) 1995/05 Civil registration 1576 37.5 ?1C,2C 0.0211 Grijibovski et al. (2009)  
  Pakistani (Norway-born) 1995/05 Civil registration 386 30.1 ?1C,2C 0.0171 Grijibovski et al. (2009)  
  Pakistani (Pakistan-born) 1995/10 Civil registration 8814 34.7 >1C,1C 0.0217 Srbye et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/aogs.12303
  Pakistani (Norway-born) 1995/10 Civil registration 1801 27.1 >1C,1C 0.0169 Srbye et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/aogs.12303
                   
Russian Republic Archangel(Pinega) - - - - - 0.0015 Revasov et al. (1979)  
                   
Sweden North (Junosuando) 1947 Parish records 281 2.8 1C 0.0018 Bk (1948)  
  North, Muonion-alusta 1947 Parish records 191 6.8 1C 0.0042 Bk (1948)  
  South 1901/52 Marriage/ parish/birth records 576 1.7 1C 0.0011 Larson (1956) PMCID: PMC1716683
  West, Ostmarkt 1901/41 Household survey 535 1.3 1C 0.0008 Bk & Mawe (1955) PMCID: PMC1716667
  Norrbotten 1946/48 Household survey 8667 0.4 1C 0.0003 Bk (1957) DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.1972.tb00282.x
                   
South Europe                  
Spain Gitano, Roma/Gypsy 1903/99 Community survey 1267 18.8 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0069 Martin & Gomella (2005) DOI: 10.1016/j.hisfam.2004.03.004
                   
West Europe                  
Belgium All-Belgium, Moroccan 1994/96 Household survey 591 28 1C 0.0175 Reniers (1998) DOI: doi.org/10.3138/jcfs.32.1.21
  All-Belgium, Turkish 1994/96 Household survey 995 22 1C 0.0138 Reniers (1998) DOI: doi.org/10.3138/jcfs.32.1.21
                   
Oceania                  
Australia New South Wales, Lebanese 1984/86 Obstetric inpatients 400 35.8 D1C,1C,2C 0.0128 de Costa (1988) DOI: 10.5694/j.1326-5377.1988.tb120728.x