TABLE 6
CCONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGE IN POPULATION MINORITIES, ISOLATES AND MIGRANTS
Region/country Location/ community Collection period Study population Sample size Consanguinity(%) Consanguinity types Coefficient of inbreeding (() Reference Added
North Africa
Morocco Marrakesh High Atlas 1985/89,1997/98 Household survey 438 0.219 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0093 Cherkaoui et al. (2005) 6/17/2021
Knitra, Gharb 2001 Hospital outpatients 125 42.8 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0166 Attazagharti et al. (2006) 6/17/2021
Rabat-Sal- Zemmour-Zaer 2004/05 Obstetric outpatients 263 20.2 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0191 Hami et al. (2007) 6/17/2021
Rabat - University students 291 59.8 D1C,1C,2C 0.0279 Talbi et al. (2007) 6/17/2021
Tanger, Ttouan 2014 University students 160 39.3 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0203 Hardouz et al. (2014) 6/17/2021
Ttouan, Mdiq-fnideq 2016/17 University students 201 25.4 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0117 Hajjaji et al. (2018) 6/17/2021
Sudan Tir, Dinka 1954 Household survey 375 - - 0.0015 Roberts (1956)
Nyertiti, Fur - Household survey 99 70.7% 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0415 Bayoumi et al. (1985)
Nyertiti, Baggara - Household survey 46 71.7 1C,11/2C 0.0442 Bayoumi et al. (1985)
South Africa
Tristan da Cunha All-Island 1961 Pedigree analysis 267 - - 0.0400 Roberts (1980)
North America
Canada New Brunswick, Bathhurst 1959 RC dispensation 686 4.8% 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0010 Freire-Maia (1968)
Quebec, Gaspe 1959 RC dispensation 600 6.0% 11/2C,2C 0.0012 Freire-Maia (1968)
Newfoundland, Trepassey 1960/79 Pedigree analysis 545 - - 0.0032 Bear et al. (1988)
Newfoundland, West Coast 1960/79 Pedigree analysis 613 - - 0.0171 Bear et al. (1988)
Newfoundland, Southeast Labrador 1960/79 Pedigree 376 - - 0.0007 Bear et al. (1988)
U.S.A. Kentucky, Beech Creek 1942 Household survey 107 18.7% 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0061 Brown (1951)
Ramah Navaho 1950/64 Pedigree analysis 1,074 - - 0.0026 Spuhler & Kluckhohn (1989)
New Mexico, Gallup 1959 RC dispensation 370 1.4 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0004 Freire-Maia (1968)
Texas, Austin 1959 RC dispensation 675 1.3 1C,2C 0.0006 Freire-Maia (1968)
Kansas, Mennonites 1980 Pedigree analysis 194 33.0 - 0.0030 Moore (1987)
Pennsylvania, Amish farmers 1950/- Pedigree analysis 909 - - 0.0012 Khoury et al. (1987)
Pennsylvania, Amish non-farmers 1950/- Pedigree analysis 1,014 - - 0.0008 Khoury et al. (1987)
Boston, Gypsies 1980s Pedigree analysis 21 61.9 1C,2C,3C 0.0170 Thomas et al. (1987)
South America
Brazil South, Amerindians 1959/60 Field study 465 13.1% UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0052 Salzano (1961)
South, Jewish 1959/60 Household survey 150 2.7 1C,11/2C 0.0013 Freire-Maia & Krieger (1963)
Central Asia
Tajikistan Urgut, Samarkand - Household survey - - - 0.0280 Paradeeva & Revasov (1987)
Taimyr, Nganasans 1974/6 Household survey 223 20.0% 2C 0.0022 Goltzova (1981)
Turkmenistan Ashkhabad - Household survey 1,596 - - 0.0023 Revasov et al. (1983)
Nochur - Household survey 600 - - 0.0330 Revasov et al. (1984)
Uzbekhistan Tersak IV - Household survey - - - 0.0190 Ginter et al. (1980)
Tersak III - Household survey - - - 0.0078 Ginter et al. (1980)
Kizil-Ketman - Household survey - - - 0.0109 Ginter et al. (1980)
Zum - Household survey - - - 0.0158 Ginter et al. (1980)
Arab-Chona - Household Survey - - - 0.0271 Ginter et al. (1980)
Abron - Household survey - - - 0.0131 Ginter et al. (1980)
East Asia
Japan Kurodani 1968/ Household survey 83 9.6% 1C,11/2C 0.0049 Yamamoto et al. (1972)
Okukurodani 1968/ Household survey 48 29.2 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0124 Yamamoto et al. (1972)
Arihara 1968/ Household survey 69 47.8 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0184 Yamamoto et al. (1972)
Mukugawa 1968/ Household survey 83 21.6 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0068 Yamamoto et al. (1972)
Aso 1968/ Household survey 95 15.8 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0084 Yamamoto et al. (1972)
Mishima I - Household survey 517 15.5 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0075 Fujiki et al. (1982)
Mishima II - Household survey 192 18.8 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0093 Fujiki et al. (1982)
Nuwajima I - Household survey 340 12.4 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0055 Fujiki et al. (1982)
Nuwajima II - Household survey 175 6.3% 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0030 Fujiki et al. (1982)
Okishima - Household survey 286 24.5 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0110 Fujiki et al. (1982)
Midono - Household survey 54 16.7 1C,2C 0.0087 Fujiki et al. (1982)
Kurodani I - Household survey 85 9.4 1C,11/2C 0.0048 Fujiki et al. (1982)
Kurodani II - Household survey 48 29.2 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0124 Fujiki et al. (1982)
Arihana - Household survey 69 47.8 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0184 Fujiki et al. (1982)
Mukugawa - Household survey 83 22.9 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0075 Fujiki et al. (1982)
Azo - Household survey 95 17.9 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0097 Fujiki et al. (1982)
Tomiyama - Household survey 156 27.6 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0115 Fujiki et al. (1982)
Miyama-co - Household survey 271 15.7 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0066 Fujiki et al. (1986)
South Asia
India (South) Andhra Pradesh
Chittoor, Banjara (Lambani) 1972/3 Household survey 167 41.3% UN,1C 0.0299 Saheb & Naik (1983)
Nelgonda, Banjara (Lambani) 1979/80 Household survey 113 10.6 1C 0.0066 Saheb & Naik (1983)
East Godavari, Konda Reddis - - 137 51.8 UN,1C 0.0392 Veerraju (1978)
East Godavari, Koya Doras I - - 154 51.3 UN,1C 0.0467 Veerraju (1978)
East Godavari, Konda Reddis II - - 152 61.8 UN,1C,2C 0.0398 Veerraju (1978)
East Godavari, Konda Kammaras - - 150 65.6 UN,1C 0.0571 Veerraju (1978)
East Godavari, Koya Doras II - - 140 70.6 UN,1C,2C 0.0490 Veerraju (1978)
Vishakapatnam, Valmikis I - - 119 69.2 UN,1C - Veerraju (1978)
Vishakapatnam, Valmikis II - - 119 52.1 UN,1C 0.0363 Veerraju (1978)
Vishakapatnam, Bagathas - - 123 62.7 UN,1C 0.0427 Veerraju (1978)
Vishakapatnam, Gadabas - - 128 60.2 UN,1C 0.0395 Veerraju (1978)
Vishakapatnam, Khond 247 67.6% UN,1C 0.0440 Bharathi (2014)
Srikakulam, Savaras - - 100 72.0 - -
Adilabad, Kolams I - - 680 20.0 UN,1C 0.0157 Veerraju (1978)
Adilabad, Kolams II - - 283 45.6 UN,1C 0.0287 Veerraju (1978)
Adilabad, Raj Gonds - - 397 34.5 1C 0.0216 Veerraju (1978)
Adilabad, Pardhans - - 114 53.5 1C 0.0334 Veerraju (1978)
Adilabad, Andhs - - 99 22.2 UN,1C 0.0146 Veerraju (1978)
Adilabad, Mathuras - - 93 6.5 UN,1C 0.0047 Veerraju (1978)
Mahaboobnagar Chenchu, 1981 Household survey 504 26.4 UN,1C,11/2C 0.0150 Sirajuddin & Basu (1984)
Karnataka Siddi, Hindu 1980/81 Household survey 47 38.3 UN,AN,1C,2C 0.0263 Vijayakumar & Malhotra (1983)
Siddi, Muslim 1980/81 Household survey 65 46.2 UN,1C,2C 0.0269 Vijayakumar & Malhotra (1983)
Siddi, Christian 1980/81 Household survey 156 24.4 UN,AN,1C,2C 0.0169 Vijayakumar & Malhotra (1983)
Kodagu, Kodava - Household survey 535 2.4% 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0014 Saheb et al. (1981)
Kodagu, Amma Kodagu - Household survey 130 6.9 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0032 Saheb et al. (1981)
Tamil Nadu North Arcot, Irular 1982 Household survey 216 44.0 UN,1C,11/2C 0.0334 Saheb & Bhanu (1983)
Lakshadweep
Koya 1961 Census 176 33.5 1C 0.0210 Roychoudhury (1977)
Malmi 1961 Census 435 4.1 1C,11/2C 0.0021 Roychoudhury (1977)
Melacheri 1961 Census 1,471 6.3 1C,2C 0.0039 Roychoudhury (1977)
India (West) Bombay, Irani 1961/72 Obstetric inpatients 195 22.1 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0091 Undevia & Balakrishnan (1978)
Iran Khuzestan, SW Iran, Mandaean 2016 Household survey 137 61.3 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0364 Saadat & Zarghami (2017)
Pakistan North West Frontier Province (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) 1996 Household survey 143 21.0% 1C,2C 0.0128 Wahab & Ahmad (2005)
West Asia
Iraq Hamawand, Kurds 1951 Household survey 21 57.1% UN,1C 0.0417 Barth (1954)
South Kurdistan, Kurds 1951 Household survey 46 17.4 UN,1C 0.0122 Barth (1954)
Israel Samaritans 1960 Household survey 28 46.4% 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0190 Bonn (1963)
Cochin, Jews 1958 Household survey 59 15.3 UN,1C 0.0117 Goldschmidt (1963)
Lebanon Palestinians 1998 Household survey 3,972 19.8% D1C,1C 0.0142 Pedersen (2002)
Jordan Palestinians 1996 National survey 4,950 26.1% D1C,1C 0.0186 Pedersen (2002)
Palestinians 1999 Household survey 2,888 26.0 D1C,1C 0.0178 Pedersen (2002)
Syria Palestinians 2001 Household survey 4,195 18.3% D1C,1C 0.0134 Pedersen (2002)
East Europe
Slovakia Slovak, Roma I - Pedigree analysis 34 14.7% D1C,1C,11/2C 0.0184 Sivkov et al. (1994)
Slovak, Roma II - Pedigree analysis 69 10.1 D1C,1C,11/2C 0.0082 Sivkov et al. (1994)
North Europe
Great Britain Orkney 1910/49 Parish records 63 9.5% 1C,2C 0.0017 Roberts et al. (1979)
Colonsay 1977 Pedigree analysis 65 - - 0.0023 Sheets (1980)
Jura 1977 Pedigree analysis 65 - - 0.0044 Sheets (1980)
Eriskay, Hebrides 1960/79 RC dispensation 22 18.2 2C 0.0028 Robinson (1983)
Welsh, Romany 1970s Pedigree analysis 99 36.3 1C,2C 0.0123 Williams & Harper (1977)
Birmingham, Pakistani 1982/83 Obstetric inpatients 260 46.9 1C 0.0293 Honeyman et al. (1987)
Bradford, Pakistani - Obstetric inpatients 100 67.0 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0377 Darr & Model (1988)
Birmingham, Afro-Caribbean 1986/87 Obstetric inpatients 509 0.4 1C,2C 0.0002 Bundey et al. (1990)
Bradford, Pakistani 2007/10 Antenatal clinic 5,127 50.9% 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0256 Bhopal et al. (2014)
Ireland (Northern) All counties, Travellers 1989 Household/ itinerant survey 203 65.5% 1C,<1C - Gordon et al. (1991)
Ireland (Republic) Westmeath, Travellers 1970/86 Household/ itinerant 141 71.6 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0312 Flynn (1986)
Norway Pakistani 1967/93 Civil registration 7,274 31.0% >1C,1C 0.0194 Stoltenberg et al. (1998)
Pakistani (Pakistan-born) 1995/05 Civil registration 1,576 37.5 ?1C,2C 0.0211 Grijibovski et al. (2009)
Pakistani (Norway-born) 1995/05 Civil registration 386 30.1 ?1C,2C 0.0171 Grijibovski et al. (2009)
Pakistani (Pakistan-born) 1995/10 Civil registration 8,814 34.7 >1C,1C 0.0217 Srbye et al. (2014)
Pakistani (Norway-born) 1995/10 Civil registration 1,801 27.1 >1C,1C 0.0169 Srbye et al. (2014)
Russian Republic Archangel(Pinega) - - - - - 0.0015 Revasov et al. (1979)
Sweden North (Junosuando) 1947 Parish records 281 2.8% 1C 0.0018 Bk (1948)
North, Muonion-alusta 1947 Parish records 191 6.8 1C 0.0042 Bk (1948)
South 1901/52 Marriage/ parish/birth records 576 1.7% 1C 0.0011 Larson (1956)
West, Ostmarkt 1901/41 Household survey 535 1.3 1C 0.0008 Bk & Mawe (1955)
Norrbotten 1946/48 Household survey 8,667 0.4 1C 0.0003 Bk (1957)
South Europe
Spain Gitano, Roma/Gypsy 1903/99 Community survey 1,267 18.8% UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0069 Martin & Gomella (2005)
West Europe
Belgium All-Belgium, Moroccan 1994/96 Household survey 591 28.0% 1C 0.0175 Reniers (1998)
All-Belgium, Turkish 1994/96 Household survey 995 22.0 1C 0.0138 Reniers (1998)
Oceania
Australia New South Wales, Lebanese 1984/86 Obstetric inpatients 400 35.8% D1C,1C,2C 0.0128 de Costa (1988)