TABLE 4
CONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGE IN EUROPE
Region/country Location/ community Collection period Study population Sample size Consanguinity(%) Consanguinity types Coefficient of inbreeding (() Reference
East Europe
Czechoslovakia All Czechoslovakia 1961/64 Obstetric inpatients 19,726 0.2% >1C,1C,<1C - Stevenson et al. (1966)
Hungary All-Hungary 1946 Civil registration 98,662 0.1% UN,AN,1C 0.0001 Czeilel et al. (1976)
Budapest 1971 Obstetric inpatients 2,130 0.5 1C,2C 0.0002 Czeizel et al. (1976)
Pecs and Szombathely 1971 Obstetric inpatients 1,061 0.8 1C,2C 0.0003 Czeizel et al. (1976)
Nyiregyhaza  1971 Obstetric inpatients 2,038 0.5 1C,2C 0.0002 Czeizel et al. (1976)
All-Hungary 1971 Obstetric inpatients 5,229 0.5 1C,2C 0.0002 Czeilel et al. (1976)
North Europe
Great Britain London 1950/51 Paediatric outpatients 5,217 0.4% 1C 0.0003 Pugh & Carter (unpublished, cited in Coleman 1980)
Reading 1972/73 Household survey 946 0.4 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0002 Coleman (1980)
Birmingham 1986/87 Obstetric Inpatients 2,431 0.2 1C,2C 0.0001 Bundey et al. (1990)
Bradford 2007/10 Antenatal clinic 4,488 0.04 1C,11/2C,2C 0.00003 Bhopal et al. (2014)
Ireland, Northern Londonderry 1954 Household survey 1,612 0.9% 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0008 Kilpatrick et al. (1955)
Belfast 1957 Obstetric outpatients 8,380 0.4 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0001 Stevenson & Warnock (1959)
All-N. Ireland 1959/68 RC dispensation 41,528 0.4 UN,D1C,1C, 11/2C,2C 0.0001 Masterson (1970)
Ireland, Republic All-Irish Republic 1959/68 RC dispensation 149,029 0.5 UN,D1C,1C, 11/2C,D2C,2C 0.0002 Masterson (1970)
Norway All-Norway 1967/72 Civil registration 401,671 0.6% UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0002 Saugstad (1977)
All-Norway 1967/81 Civil registration 893,941 0.7 1C,2C 0.0002 Magnus et al. (1985)
All-Norway 1967/93 Civil registration 1,431,055 0.1% >1C,1C 0.0001 Stoltenberg et al. (1998)
All-Norway 1995/10 Civil registration 712,430 <0.01 >1C,1C <0.0001 Sørbye et al. (2014)
Sweden North, Pajala 1947 Parish records 843 1.0% 1C 0.0006 Böök (1948)
All-Sweden 1946/50 Pregnancy termination 15,802 0.6 1C,2C 0.0003 Romanus (1953)
South Europe
Croatia Zagreb 1961/4 Obstetric Inpatients 8,309 0.1% >1C,1C,<1C - Stevenson et al. (1966)
Italy Florence 1939/58 RC dispensation 50,028 1.1% D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0005 Bigozzi et al. (1970)
All-Italy - RC dispensation - 1.1 1C,2C 0.0005 Romeo et al. (1981)
All-Italy 1953 Civil registration 340,693 0.5 UN,AN,1C, 0.0004 Fraccaro (1957)
Upper Bologna Appennine 1950/80 RC dispensation 5,340 1.6 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0004 Pettener (1985)
Portugal All-Portugal 1952/5 Civil registration 276,800 1.5% UN,1C 0.0009 Freire-Maia (1957)
Azores Islands 1979/85 RC dispensation 12,456 2.9% >1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0011 Da Cunha (1986-87)
Slovenia Ljubljana 1961/4 Obstetric inpatients 8,712 0.6% >1C,1C,<1C - Stevenson et al. (1966)
Spain All-Spain 1940/3 RC dispensation - 4.1% UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0014 Pinto-Cisternas et al. (1979)
Madrid 1961/4 Obstetric inpatients 19,365 1.1 >1C,1C,<1C - Stevenson et al. (1966)
Mondonedo 1922/64 RC dispensation - 2.6 1C,2C 0.0022 Valls (1967)
Leon 1958/68 RC dispensation 16,656 2.8 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0007 Gomez Gomez(1989)
Majorca 1930/62 RC dispensation 39,184 2.5 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0010 Valls (1969)
Menorca 1943/64 RC dispensation 2,084 2.9 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0010 Valls (1969)
Ibiza 1941/63 RC dispensation 4,042 5.4 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0019 Valls (1969)
Formentera 1941/63 RC dispensation 498 7.8 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0026 Valls (1969)
Alava Province, Basque country 1951/80 RC dispensation 38,965 1.2 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0003 Calderón et al. (1993)
Vitoria, Basque country 1951/80 RC dispensation 27,265 0.6 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0002 Calderón et al. (1993)
Alava, Basque country 1951/80 RC dispensation 11,700 2.5% UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0006 Calderón et al. (1998)
Sigüenza- Guadalajara 1951/80 RC dispensation 5,315 12.6 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0029 Calderón et al. (1998)
Santiago de Compostela, Galicia 1970/79 RC dispensation 48,984 1.5 UN,1C,11/2C 0.0005 Varela et al. (1997)
Los Nogales, Galicia 1960/71 RC dispensation 156 3.8 1C,2C 0.0015 Fuster (2003)
La Cabrera, Galicia 1970/89 RC dispensation 325 2.5 1C,2C 0.0007 Blanco Villegas et al. (2004)
West Europe
Belgium All-Belgium 1950/59 RC dispensation 605,849 1.0% UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0003 Twiesselmann et al. (1962)
France Loire Valley 1944/53 RC dispensation 19,861 0.7% 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0010 Sutter & Tabah(1954)
Brittany 1951/3 RC dispensation 13,000 1.2 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0005 Sutter & Tabah (1954)
All-France 1946/58 RC dispensation 510,000 0.8 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0002 Sutter & Goux(1964)
Netherlands All-Holland 1948/53 Civil registration 351,085 0.2% UN,1C 0.0001 Freire-Maia (1957)