TABLE 3
CONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGE IN ASIA
Region/country Location/ community Collection period Study population Sample size Consanguinity(%) Consanguinity types Coefficient of inbreeding (() Reference
East Asia                
China                
Han Beijing, urban 1949/67 Household survey 2,370 0.007 1C,11/2C,D2C,2C 0.0003 Du et al. (1981)
  Beijing, suburban 1949/67 Household survey 1,409 1.1 1C,11/2C,D2C,2C 0.0005 Du et al. (1981)
  Beijing, rural 1949/67 Household survey 1,572 1.1 1C,11/2C,D2C, 0.0003 Du et al. (1981)
  Shanghai, urban - - 3,127 0.8 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0006 Wu (1987)
  Hubei, urban 1949/67 Household survey 500 1.2 1C,11/2C,D2C,2C 0.0007 Du et al. (1981)
  Hubei, rural 1949/67 Household survey 1,874 2.8 1C,11/2C,D2C,2C 0.0015 Du et al. (1981)
  Hubei, rural - - 14,427 4.3 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0026 Wu (1987)
  Sichuan, Shifang 1987 Household survey 526 0.068 1C 0.0043 Wang (pers. comm.)
  Sichuan, rural - - 168 4.8 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0023 Wu (1987)
  Heilongiang - - 5,313 1.2 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0006 Wu (1987)
  Yunnan, rural - - 553 4.7 1C,11/2C,2C - Wu (1987)
  Xinjiang - - 1,535 1.7 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0008 Wu (1987)
  Guizhou, rural - - 518 5.7 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0034 Wu (1987)
  Zejiang, mountain 1981/91 Household survey 11,199 3 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0017 Zhan et al. (1992)
  Zejiang, plateau 1981/91 Household survey 15,762 1.1 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0006 Zhan et al. (1992)
  Zejiang 1981/91 Household survey 17,381 2.5 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0014 Zhan et al. (1992)
  All-Hong Kong 1961/64 Obstetric inpatients 9,749 1.8 >1C,1C,<1C - Stevenson et al. (1966)
Kazakh Xinjiang 1951/76 Household survey 1,079 2.9 D1C,1C,2C 0.0011 Ai et al. (1985)
Uygur Xinjiang 1951/76 Household survey 2,553 8.2 D1C,1C,2C 0.0047 Ai et al. (1985)
Kirgiz Xinjiang - - 2,863 45.2 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0274 Wu (1987)
Tajik Uzbek Xinjiang - - 1,325 42.8 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0246 Wu (1987)
  Xinjiang - - 159 0.233 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0011 Wu (1987)
Huizu Xinjiang 1951/76 Household survey 1,079 2.9 UN,1C,2C 0.0011 Ai et al. (1985)
  Gansu - - 1,376 9.7 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0049 Wu (1987)
  Guangdong - - 614 3.9 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0012 Wu (1987)
  Guizhou - - 555 11.2 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0065 Wu (1987)
Tibetan Xi Zhang 1949/67 Household survey 697 0 - 0 Du et al. (1981)
Korean Ji Lin 1949/67 Household survey 2,080 0 - 0 Du et al. (1981)
Lizu Guangdong/ Hainan 1949/67 Household survey 1,310 1.5 1C,11/2C,D2C, 0.0005 Du et al. (1981)
  Sichuan, urban - - 354 58.2 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0431 Wu (1987)
  Sichuan, rural - - 326 32.2 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0112 Wu (1987)
Yizu Sichuan 1949/67 Household survey 2,054 14.6 1C,11/2C,D2C, 0.0091 Du et al. (1981)
  Guizhou - - 512 12.7 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0067 Wu (1987)
Dongxiang Gansu 1949/67 Household survey 2,092 4.3 1C,11/2C,D2C, 0.0023 Du et al. (1981)
Bo’an Gansu 1949/67 Household survey 772 10.9 1C,11/2C,D2C,2C 0.0058 Du et al. (1981)
Ewenki Nei Meng Gu 1949/67 Household survey 626 0.034 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0012 Du et al. (1981)
Orogen Nei Meng Gu/ Hei Lung Jiang 1949/67 Household survey 183 1.6 11/2C 0.0003 Du et al. (1981)
Miaozu Guangdong/ Hainan 1949/67 Household survey 330 0.9 1C,11/2C 0.0004 Du et al. (1981)
Xibe Xinjiang 1951/76 Household survey 1,222 4.7 1C,2C 0.0025 Ai et al. (1985)
Mongolian Xinjiang 1951/76 Household survey 446 0.5 1C 0.0003 Ai et al. (1985)
Daizu Yunnan - - 94 21.3 1C,11/2C,2C - Wu (1987)
Hizhen Heilongiang - - 60 18.3 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0098 Wu (1987)
Hani Yunnan - - 449 12.5 1C,11/2C,2C - Wu (1987)
Mong - 1992 Household survey 525 27.4 UN,1C,11/2C, 0.0150 Yang et al. (1994)
Man Laioning 1998 Household survey 418 3.1 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0012 Wang et al. (2002)
                 
Hong Kong                
Chinese Hong Kong 2007/16 Obstetric inpatients 49,032 0.04 1C,2C 0.00002 Siong et al. (2019)
Filipino Hong Kong 2007/16 Obstetric inpatients 235 0.4 2C 0.0006 Siong et al. (2019)
Indian Hong Kong 2007/16 Obstetric inpatients 177 0.062 1C 0.0039 Siong et al. (2019)
Nepalese Hong Kong 2007/16 Obstetric inpatients 669 2.7 1C,2C 0.0013 Siong et al. (2019)
Pakistani Hong Kong 2007/16 Obstetric inpatients 931 30.5 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0166 Siong et al. (2019)
                 
Japan Fukushima - Household survey 3,659 0.155 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0067 Watanabe (1956)
  Hiroshima 1948/53 Obstetric outpatients 27,934 5.9 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0027 Schull (1958)
  Nagasaki 1948/53 Obstetric Outpatients 33,319 8 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0037 Schull (1958)
  Kure 1948/53 Obstetric outpatients 8,211 0.07 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0032 Schull (1958)
  Hirado 1964/65 Civil registration 10,457 14.7 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0061 Schull et al. (1970)
  Fukuoka 1962/65 Household  survey/civil registration 45,230 7.6 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0029 Yamaguchi et al. (1970)
  Shizuoka 1958/60 Household survey 6,161 8.1 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0036 Komai & Tanaka (1972)
  All-Japan 1972 Household Survey 9,385 5.7 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0018 Imaizumi et al. (1975)
  Tokyo 1975/76 Paediatric outpatients 2,383 1.2 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0006 Tanaka et al. (1978)
  Tokyo 1961 School survey 4,153 4.6 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0021 Furusho (1979)
  Yokohama 1961 School survey 2,713 5.3 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0026 Furusho (1979)
  Tokyo & Osaka 1981 Workplace survey/ optician outpatients 983 0.4 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0001 Hosoda et al. (1983)
  All-Japan 1983 Household survey 9,225 3.9 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0013 Imaizumi (1986)
                 
Southeast Asia                
Cambodia Siem Reap 2004 Hospital in-/ outpatient 300 0.123 1C,2C 0.0035 Sullivan pers. comm.
                 
Indonesia West Timor & West Flores, Roman Catholic 1990 Household survey 970 0.178 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0095 Glinka (1994)
                 
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 1961/64 Obstetric inpatients 15,658 0.076 >1C,1C,<1C - Stevenson et al. (1966)
                 
Philippines Manila 1961/64 Obstetric inpatients 29,143 0.004 >1C,1C,<1C - Stevenson et al. (1966)
                 
Singapore All-Singapore 1961/64 Obstetric inpatients 39,333 0.05 >1C,1C,<1C - Stevenson et al. (1966)
  Chinese 1980 Marriage registration 16,698 0.3 1C 0.0002 Tay (1982)
  Indian 1980 Marriage registration 989 4 UN,1C 0.0028 Tay (1982)
                 
South Asia                
Afghanistan Nangarhar & Kunard provinces 1995 Household survey 168 0.554 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0332 Wahab et al.. (2006)
  Pashtun 2010 Household survey 2,133 43.1 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0296 Saify & Saadat (2012)
  Hazara 2010 Household survey 1,081 46.7 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0293 Saify & Saadat (2012)
  Tajik (Soni) 2010 Household survey 2,293 37.8 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0250 Saify & Saadat (2012)
  Tajik (Shia) 2010 Household survey 470 43.4 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0263 Saify & Saadat (2012)
  Uzbek 2010 Household survey 828 43.7 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0286 Saify & Saadat (2012)
  Turkmen 2010 Household survey 335 47.8 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0297 Saify & Saadat (2012)
  All-Afghan  2010 Household survey 7,140 42.3 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0277 Saify & Saadat (2012)
  West and South provinces              
  Pashtun 2011/12 Household survey 1,369 50.2 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0223 Saadat & Tajbakhsh (2013)
                 
  Hazara 2011/12 Household survey 1,427 53.4 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0217 Saadat & Tajbakhsh (2013)
  Tajik (Soni) 2011/12 Household survey 1,097 50.8 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0210 Saadat & Tajbakhsh (2013)
  Tajik (Shia) 2011/12 Household survey 546 0.493 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0252 Saadat & Tajbakhsh (2013)
  Turkmen 2011/12 Household survey 496 63.5 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0224 Saadat & Tajbakhsh (2013)
  Sadat 2011/12 Household survey 265 50.6 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0218 Saadat & Tajbakhsh (2013) 
  All West & South 2011/12 Household survey 5,200 52.3 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0219 Saadat & Tajbakhsh (2013)
                 
Bangladesh Matlab 1966/- Household survey 8,000 0.067 1C,2C 0.0015 Khan et al. (unpublished)
  Teknaf 1976/- Household survey 4,266 17.6 1C,2C 0.0101 Khan et al. (unpublished)
                 
India                
East Calcutta 1961/64 Obstetric inpatients 19,111 0.005 >1C,1C,<1C - Stevenson et al. (1966)
  West Bengal, Muslim 1969/71 Household survey 835 22.2 1C,2C 0.0135 Huq (1976)
  Bihar, Muslim, suburban - Household survey 7,209 24 1C 0.0150 Afzal (1988)
  Bihar, Muslim, rural - Household survey 4,524 39.9 1C 0.0249 Afzal (1988)
  Bihar, All-Muslim - Household survey 476 13.9 1C,2C 0.0076 Ansari & Sinha (1978)
  All-East India, Muslim 1992/93 Household survey 2,622 0.158 UN,1C,2C 0.0097 Bittles & Hussain (2000)
  All-East India 1992/93 Household survey 14,679 5.3 UN,1C,2C 0.0032 Kumari et al. (2020)
  All-East India 2015/16 Household survey 100,800 3.5 UN,1C,2C 0.0023 Kumari et al. (2020)
Central Madhya Pradesh, Hindu - - 1,145 0.086 UN,1C,2C 0.0033 Goswami (1970)
  Madhya Pradesh, Scheduled tribes & castes - - 147 28.6 UN,1C,2C 0.0145 Goswami (1970)
  Madhya Pradesh, Muslim - - 451 46.1 UN,1C,2C 0.0215 Goswami (1970)
  Madhya Pradesh, Christians - - 72 25 UN,1C,2C 0.0098 Goswami (1970)
  All-Central India, Muslim 1992/93 Household survey 1,819 27.3 UN,1C,2C 0.0168 Bittles & Hussain (2000)
  All-Central India 1992/93 Household survey 17,650 6 UN,1C,2C 0.0037 Kumari et al. (2020)
  All-Central India 2015/16 Household survey 137,877 6.5 UN,1C,2C 0.0040 Kumari et al. (2020)
North Delhi, Sunni Muslim - Household survey 1,483 0.244 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0100 Basu (1975)
  Lucknow, Shia Muslim - Household survey 1,000 43.4 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0202 Basu (1975)
  Udaipur, Shia Muslim - Household survey 957 0.411 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0218 Basu (1978)
  Delhi, Sunni Muslim - Household survey 502 36.5 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0180 Krishan (1986)
  Lucknow, Hindu 1981/84 Obstetric inpatients 7,955 0.1 UN,1C 0.0001 Agarwal et al. (1991)
  Lucknow, Muslim 1981/84 Obstetric inpatients 1,276 17.2 UN,1C,2C 0.0095 Agarwal et al. (1991)
  All-North India, Muslim 1992/93 Household survey 1,166 23 UN,1C,2C 0.0130 Bittles & Hussain (2000)
  Ladakh, Balti, Shia Muslim - Household survey 208 18.8 UN,1C,2C 0.0111 Bhasin & Nag (2002)
  Ladakh, Brokpa, Sunni Muslim - Household survey 54 14.8 1C,2C 0.0075 Bhasin & Nag (2002)
  Ladakh, Arghuns, Sunni Muslim - Household survey 151 21.8 UN,1C,2C 0.0140 Bhasin & Nag (2002)
  All-North India 1992/93 Household survey 18,538 2.6 UN,1C,2C 0.0015 Kumari et al. (2020)
  All-North India 2015/16 Household survey 104,840 5 UN,1C,2C 0.0030 Kumari et al. (2020)
North-east All North-east India 1992/93 Household survey 8,571 2.1 UN,1C,2C 0.0013 Kumari et al. (2020)
  All-North-east India 2015/16 Household survey 70,467 1.5 UN,1C,2C 0.0009 Kumari et al. (2020)
South Andhra Pradesh 1959/- Hospital inpatients 2,177 0.306 UN,AN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0195 Dronamraju & Meera Khan (1963)
  Andhra Pradesh 1957/58 Household survey 6,945 42.5 UN,1C 0.0324 Sanghvi (1966)
  Andhra Pradesh, Vedde 1982 Household survey 2,078 32.4 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0185 Reddy (1992)
  Karnataka, Hindu 1980/89 Obstetric inpatients 86,448 33.5 UN,1C,2C 0.0333 Bittles et al. (1991)
  Karnataka, Muslim 1980/89 Obstetric inpatients 17,019 23.7 UN,1C,2C 0.0160 Bittles et al. (1991)
  Karnataka, Christian 1980/89 Obstetric inpatients 4,038 18.6 UN,1C,2C 0.0173 Bittles et al. (1991)
  All-Karnataka 1980/89 Obstetric Inpatients 107,518 31.4 UN,1C,2C 0.0299 Bittles et al. (1991)
  Belgaum, Hindu - Household survey 462 31.2 UN,1C 0.0273 Nath et al. (2004)
  Kerala 1966 Hospital inpatients 889 20.7 1C,2C 0.0118 Kumar et al. (1967)
  Kerala - - 1,631 13 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0075 Ali (1968)
  Tamil Nadu 1968/69 Household survey 31,390 30 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0231 Rao et al. (1971)
  Tamil Nadu, rural 1969/74 Household survey 11,628 46.3 UN,AN,1C,11/2C 0.0367 Rao & Inbaraj (1977)
  Tamil Nadu, urban 1969/74 Household survey 8,998 28.6 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0203 Rao & Inbaraj (1977)
  Tamil Nadu, Brahmin 1971/72 Household survey 486 0.173 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0124 Srinavasan & Mukherjee (1976)
  Pondicherry 1971/72 Household survey 1,494 55.1 UN,1C,<1C 0.0449 Puri et al. (1978)
  All-South India, Muslim 1992/93 Household survey 1,912 19.4 UN,1C,2C 0.0111 Bittles & Hussain (2000)
  Karnataka, Mangalore, Hindu - Household survey 417 4.1 1C,2C 0.0018 Bhagya et al. (2012)
  Karnataka, Mangalore, Muslim - Household survey 376 11.2 1C,2C 0.0042 Bhagya et al. (2012)
  Karnataka, Mangalore, Christian - Household survey 371 1.1 1C 0.0007 Bhagya et al. (2012)
  Tamil Nadu, Madurai, rural 2014/15 Household survey 750 39.2 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0264 Saleem et al. (2016)
  All-South India 1992/93 Household survey 16,834 26.5 UN,1C,2C 0.0172 Kumari et al. (2020)
  All-South India 2015/16 Household survey 66,702 23.8 UN,1C,2C 0.0153 Kumari et al. (2020)
West Bombay, Hindu - - 3,520 0.077 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0039 Sanghvi et al. (1956)
  Bombay, Muslim - - 1,436 21.8 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0095 Sanghvi et al. (1956)
  Bombay, Christian - - 1,063 0.034 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0012 Sanghvi et al. (1956)
  Bombay, Parsi - - 578 18 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0096 Sanghvi et al. (1956)
  Bombay, Parsi 1961/72 Obstetric inpatients 2,348 7.4 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0036 Undevia & Balakrishnan (1978)
  Bombay 1961/64 Obstetric inpatients 39,155 9.8 >1C,1C,<1C - Stevenson et al. (1966)
  Maharashtra 1971/73 Household survey 5,282 26.4 UN,1C 0.0175 Malhotra (1979)
  All-West India, Muslim 1992/93 Household survey 917 33 UN,1C,2C 0.0201 Bittles & Hussain (2000)
  Maharashtra, Vidarbha, Hindu - Household survey 548 15.9 UN/AN,1C,2C 0.0101 Sonkar et al. (2013)
  Maharashtra, Vidarbha, Muslim - Household survey 101 23.8 1C,2C 0.0144 Sonkar et al. (2013)
  Maharashtra, Vidarbha, Buddhist - Household survey 51 7.8 1C 0.0053 Sonkar et al. (2013)
  All-West India 1992/93 Household survey 11,072 12.5 UN,1C,2C 0.0077 Kumari et al. (2020)
  All-West India 2015/16 Household survey 42,695 9.5 UN,1C,2C 0.0059 Kumari et al. (2020)
                 
Iran Shiraz 1972/75 Obstetric inpatients 9,526 0.245 1C,2C 0.0128 Naderi (1979)
  Rural, Azeri - - 440 31.8 1C,2C 0.0071 Farhud et al. (1991)
  Rural, Kurdish - - 550 38 1C,2C 0.0157 Farhud et al. (1991)
  Rural, Others - - 3,688 50 1C,2C 0.0234 Farhud et al. (1991)
  Tribal, Turkmen - - 647 18.4 1C,2C 0.0077 Farhud et al. (1991)
  Tribal, Qashqai - - 189 73.5 1C,2C 0.0392 Farhud et al. (1991)
  Muslim - - 756 24.3 1C,2C 0.0117 Farhud et al. (1991)
  Zoroastrian - - 600 17 1C,2C 0.0109 Farhud et al. (1991)
  Armenian - - 107 2.8 1C,2C 0.0018 Farhud et al. (1991)
  Assyrian - - 162 9.3 1C,2C 0.0020 Farhud et al. (1991)
  Jewish - - 449 25.4 UN,1C,2C 0.0134 Farhud et al. (1991)
  Persian, Shi’a 2001 Household survey 169,310 30 D1C,1C,2C 0.0170 Saadat et al. (2004)
  Persian, Sunni 2001 Household survey 5,435 52.1 D1C,1C,2C 0.0289 Saadat et al. (2004)
  Kurdish, Shi’a 2001 Household survey 17,005 35.9 D1C,1C,2C 0.0208 Saadat et al. (2004)
  Kurdish, Sunni 2001 Household survey 14,017 40.1 D1C,1C,2C 0.0235 Saadat et al. (2004)
  Azari 2001 Household survey 60,161 0.316 D1C,1C,2C 0.0184 Saadat et al. (2004)
  Lur 2001 Household survey 22,545 31.1 D1C,1C,2C 0.0182 Saadat et al. (2004)
  Baluchi 2001 Household survey 4,484 50 D1C,1C,2C 0.0294 Saadat et al. (2004)
  Turkaman 2001 Household survey 1,911 37.6 D1C,1C,2C 0.0218 Saadat et al. (2004)
  Arab 2001 Household survey 4,238 44.3 D1C,1C,2C 0.0239 Saadat et al. (2004)
  Bakhtiari 2001 Household survey 4,772 36.5 D1C,1C,2C 0.0203 Saadat et al. (2004)
  Zaboli 2001 Household survey 1,193 37 D1C,1C,2C 0.0209 Saadat et al. (2004)
  Ghashghai 2001 Household survey 1,272 40.3 D1C,1C,2C 0.0223 Saadat et al. (2004)
  Yazd - Newborn survey 1,195 25.1 D1C,1C,11/2C 0.0165 Tayebi et al. (2010)
  Georgian - Household survey 644 22 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0103 Rafiee & Saadat (2011)
  Gilan 2005 Household survey 1,598 20.9 1C,2C 0.0082 Hosseini-Chavoshi et al. (2014)
  Isfahan 2005 Household survey 1,494 0.442 1C,2C 0.0177 Hosseini-Chavoshi et al. (2014)
  Yazd 2005 Household survey 1,505 50.2 1C,2C 0.0208 Hosseini-Chavoshi et al(2014).
  Tehran 2005 Household survey 918 34 1C,2C 0.0121 Hosseini-Chavoshi et al. (2014)
  Tabriz 2012/13 Premarital counselling 766 20.9 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0082 Heidari et al. (2014)
                 
Nepal Muslim 2011/12 Household survey 400 0.325 1C 0.0203 Bhatta & Haque (2014)
                 
Pakistan Lahore 1979/80 Obstetric inpatients 966 0.388 D1C,1C,11/2C,D2C,2C 0.0269 Shami & Zahida (1982)
  Mianchannu 1980 Household survey 135 37.8 1C 0.0236 Shami (1983)
  Muridke 1980 Household survey 251 41.2 1C,11/2C,D2C 0.0240 Shami (1983)
  Sheikhupura 1982/83 Household survey 1,007 48.9 1C,11/2C,D2C 0.0271 Shami & Iqbal (1983)
  Gujrat 1982/83 Household survey/ obstetric inpatients 1,002 48.5 D1C,1C,11/2C,D2C,2C 0.0277 Shami & Hussain (1984)
  Jhelum 1983/84 Household survey 1,027 44.2 D1C,1C,11/2C,D2C,2C 0.0262 Shami & Minhas (1984)
  Rawalpindi 1983/84 Household survey 1,000 48.1 D1C,1C,11/2C,D2C,2C 0.0286 Shami & Siddiqui (1984)
  Faisalabad 1985/86 Household survey 1,033 52.1 D1C,1C,11/2C,D2C,2C 0.0293 Bittles et al. (1993)
  Gujrunwala 1985/86 Household survey 1,059 58.9 D1C,1C,11/2C,D2C,2C 0.0323 Bittles et al. (1993)
  Sahiwal 1985/86 Household survey 1,003 56.1 D1C,1C,11/2C,D2C,2C 0.0295 Bittles et al. (1993)
  Sialkot 1985/86 Household survey 1,037 0.518 D1C,1C,11/2C,D2C,2C 0.0261 Bittles et al. (1993)
  All-Punjab 1979/86 Household survey/obstetric inpatients 9,520 50.3 D1C,1C,11/2C,D2C,2C 0.0280 Bittles et al. (1993)
  Lahore 1987/90 Household survey 940 46.2 D1C,1C,11/2C,D2C,2C 0.0242 Yaqoob et al. (1993)
  All-Pakistan 1990/91 Household survey 6,611 61.2 1C,2C 0.0332 NIPS (1992)
  NWFP/Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 1990/91 Household survey 878 51 1C,2C 0.0259 NIPS (1992)
  Quetta - Gynaecology inpatients 171 31.6 1C,2C 0.0217 Mian & Mushtaq (1994)
  Swat, urban 1986 Household survey 1,019 31.1 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0163 Wahab & Ahmad (1996)
  Swat, rural 1986 Household survey 1,018 37.1 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0166 Wahab & Ahmad (1996)
  All-Pakistan 2006/07 Household survey 10,023 60.5 1C,2C 0.0340 NIPS (2008)
  Punjab 2006/07 Household survey 5,800 60.7 1C,2C 0.0344 NIPS (2008)
  Sindh 2006/07 Household survey 2,410 64.2 1C,2C 0.0365 NIPS (2008)
  NWFP/Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 2006/07 Household survey 1,351 51.1 1C,2C 0.0280 NIPS (2008)
  Balochistan 2006/07 Household survey 462 0.655 1C,2C 0.0346 NIPS (2008)
  All-Pakistan 2012/13 Household survey 13,558 56.4 1C,2C 0.0315 NIPS (2013)
  Punjab 2012/13 Household survey 7,790 54.1 1C,2C 0.0308 NIPS (2013)
  Sindh 2012/13 Household survey 3,133 63.1 1C,2C 0.0345 NIPS (2013)
  Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 2012/13 Household survey 1,908 53.3 1C,2C 0.0295 NIPS (2013)
  Balochistan 2012/13 Household survey 568 63.4 1C,2C 0.0339 NIPS (2013)
  Azad Jammu & Kashmir 2010 Household survey 1,584 62.2 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0347 Jabeen & Malik (2014)
  Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Malakand, rural 2011/13 Household survey 1,192 66.4 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0338 Sthanadar et al. (2014)
  Southern Punjab, Rahim Yar Khan 2010/11 Household survey 2,174 58.5 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0355 Riaz et al. (2016)
  Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 2015/16 Household survey 1,500 58.3 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0259 Pervaiz et al. (2018)
  Islamabad - Maternal care hospital outpatients 300 51 1C,2C 0.0259 Khan & Mazhar (2018)
  Rawalpindi 2017 Obstetric inpatients 1,381 45.4 1C,2C 0.0217 Choudry et al. (2020)
                 
Sri Lanka Kandy, Buddhist 1973 Household survey 455 0.215 1C,2C 0.0092 Reid (1976)
                 
West Asia                
Bahrain Bahrain 1989 Child health survey 10,070 0.455 1C,<1C 0.0166 Al-Naser (1994) 
  Bahrain 1989 Married women 500 31.8 1C,11/2C, 2C 0.0152 Al Arrayed (1994) 
  Bahrain 2009 Newborn survey 10,248 6.8 1C 0.0003 Al-Arrayed & Hamamy (2012)
                 
Iraq Baghdad - Hospital in- & out-patients/ medical students 4,491 0.464 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0225 Al-Hamamy et al. (1986)
  Baghdad - Workplace survey 382 53.4 1C,2C 0.0228 Hamamy & Al-Hakkak (1989)
  Baghdad, urban 2004 Household survey 6,381 29 D1C,1C 0.0194 Central Organization for Statistics and IT (COSIT) (2005)
  Baghdad, rural 2004 Household survey 437 50 D1C,1C 0.0325 COSIT (2005)
  Central Iraq, urban 2004 Household survey 3,950 35 D1C,1C 0.0238 COSIT (2005)
  Central Iraq, rural 2004 Household survey 2,274 40 D1C,1C 0.0263 COSIT (2005)
  Northern Iraq, urban 2004 Household survey 553 25 D1C,1C 0.0176 COSIT (2005)
  Northern Iraq, rural 2004 Household survey 2,339 26 D1C,1C 0.0219 COSIT (2005)
  Southern Iraq, urban 2004 Household survey 5,582 0.32 D1C,1C 0.0213 COSIT (2005)
  Southern Iraq, rural 2004 Household survey 2,384 41 D1C,1C 0.0269 COSIT (2005)
  All-Iraq 2004 Household survey 23,937 33 D1C,1C 0.0219 COSIT (2005)
                 
Israel Ashkenazi migrants 1955/57 Obstetric inpatients 4,734 0.014 UN,1C 0.0009 Goldschmidt et al. (1960)
  Sephardi migrants 1955/57 Obstetric inpatients 6,690 8.8 UN,1C 0.0060 Goldschmidt et al. (1960)
  Petah Tiqwa, Jewish, Askenazi 1969/70 Obstetric inpatients 1,242 1.3 >1C,1C,<1C - Tsafrir & Halbrecht(1972)
  Petah Tiqwa Jewish, Non-Ashkenazi 1969/70 Obstetric inpatients 1,916 14.3 >1C,1C,<1C - Tsafrir & Halbrecht (1972)
  All-Israel, Arab - School survey 3,203 34.2 D1C,1C 0.0238 Bashi (1977)
  Galilee, Druze - Paediatric clinic 191 48.7 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0252 Freundlich & Hino (1984)
  Galilee, Muslim - Paediatric clinic 189 39.7 1C,2C,11/2C 0.0199 Freundlich & Hino (1984)
  Galilee, Christian - Paediatric clinic 170 28.8 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0137 Freundlich & Hino (1984)
  Galilee, Arab & Druze 1976/83 Paediatric clinic 1,546 32.2 1C,2C 0.0163 Gev et al. (1986)
  All-Israel, Arab, urban 1992 School survey 1,156 0.242 D1C,1C,11/2C 0.0153 Jaber et al. (1994)
  All-Israel, Arab, suburban 1992 School survey 2,267 28.2 D1C,1C,11/2C 0.0178 Jaber et al. (1994)
  All-Israel, Arab, rural 1992 School survey 5,098 30.6 D1C,1C,11/2C 0.0194 Jaber et al. (1994)
  Central Israel, Arab 1981/85 School survey 3,328 26.6 D1C,1C,11/2C 0.0153 Jaber et al. (2000)
  All Israel, Arab Muslim 1990/92 Obstetric survey 1,025 32.1 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0177 Vardi-Saliternik et al. (2002)
  All Israel, Bedouin 1990/92 Obstetric survey 278 45.3 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0253 Vardi-Salternik et al. (2002)
  All Israel, Arab Christian 1990/92 Obstetric survey 107 20.6 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0119 Vardi-Salternik et al. (2002)
  All Israel, Druze 1990/92 Obstetric survey 115 40.9 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0233 Vardi-Salternik et al. (2002)
  Lower Galilee, Arab 1970/2000 Village study 483 17.5 1C 0.0104 Zlotogora et al. (2002)
  Haifa District, Arab Muslim 1980/85 Multi-village survey 264 29.9 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C, 0.0184 Sharkia et al. (2007)
  Haifa District, Arab Muslim 2000/04 Multi-village survey 1,057 20 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0106 Sharkia et al. (2007)
  Southern Israel, Bedouin 2009/10 Obstetric survey 1,290 0.391 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0236 Na’amnih et al. (2014)
  Haifa, Northern & Central Israel, Arab Muslim <2000/09 Health centre study 4,894 23.5 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0125 Na’amnih et al. (2015)
  Haifa, Northern & Central Israel, Druze <2000/09 Health centre study 696 27.2 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0139 Na’amnih et al. (2015)
  Haifa, Northern & Central Israel, Arab Christian <2000/09 Health centre study 395 14.9 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0073 Na’amnih et al. (2015)
  All-Israel, Arab Muslim 1948/2007 Multi-centre survey 2,472 30.5 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0152 Sharkia et al. (2015)
  All-Israel, Arab Christian 1948/2007 Multi-centre survey 363 16.5 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0110 Sharkia et al. (2015)
  All-Israel, Arab Druze 1948/2007 Multi-centre survey 338 26.3 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0176 Sharkia et al. (2015)
  All Israel, All-Arab 2000/07 Multi-centre survey 737 22.9 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0112 Sharkia et al. (2015)
                 
Jordan Irbid, north-east 1963/64 Paediatric outpatients 1,097 0.521 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0230 Cook & Hanslip (1966)
  All-Jordan 1969/79 Household survey 1,989 39.7 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0225 Khoury and Massad (1992)
  Irbid - Hospital outpatients 900 50.6 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0284 Al-Salem & Rawashdeh (1993)
  Balqa 1986/89 Household survey 340 0.403 1C,11/2C 0.0180 Nabulsi (1993)
  Amman 2004 Diabetic clinic 2,594 25.5 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0142 Hamamy et al. (2005)
  All-Jordan  2012 Household survey 11,352 33.6 1C,2C 0.0159 Dept. of Statistics (Jordan) & ICF International (2013)
                 
Kuwait All-Kuwait - Obstetric inpatients 2,133 0.384 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0174 El-Alfi et al. (1969)
  All-Kuwait 1983 Obstetric/ Gynecology outpatients 5,007 34.3 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0219 Al-Awadi et al. (1985)
  Kuwait City 1996/97 Household survey 404 22.5 D1C,1C,2C 0.0139 Radovanovic et al. (1999)
  Jahra 1996/97 Household survey 555 42.2 D1C,1C,2C 0.0251 Radovanovic et al. (1999)
                 
Lebanon Beirut 1981/82 Obstetric inpatients 750 0.26 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0116 Klat & Khudr (1986)
  Beirut, Christian 1983/84 Household survey 1,001 16.5 1C,<1C 0.0049 Khlat (1988)
  Beirut, 1983/84 Household survey 1,853 0.296 1C,<1C 0.0109 Khlat (1988)
  Beirut, All religions 1983/84 Household survey 2,854 25 1C,<1C 0.0088 Khlat (1988)
  Bekaa Valley, Sunni Bedouin 2000 Household survey 1,100 47.2 1C 0.0324 Joseph (2007)
  All-Lebanon - Household survey 1,556 35.5 1C,2C 0.0204 Barbour & Salameh (2009)
  All-Lebanon, Shia 2011 Household survey 1,203 28 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0161 El-Kheshan & Saadat (2013)
                 
Oman All-Oman 1994/97 Obstetric outpatients 60,895 0.359 1C,2C 0.0169 Rajab & Patton (2000)
  All-Oman 1995 Health centre 500 33 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0180 Rajab & Patton (2000)
  All-Oman 1995 Household survey 6,405 33.7 1C 0.0211 Islam (2012)
  All-Oman 2000 Household survey 2,037 38.5 1C 0.0241 Islam (2012)
                 
Palestinian Territories Gaza 1995 Household survey 10,409 0.272 1C 0.0170 Pedersen (2002)
  West Bank 1995 Household survey 5,778 31.6 1C 0.0198 Pedersen (2002)
  All-Palestine 1995 Household survey 16,171 29.2 1C 0.0183 Assaf & Khawaja (2009)
  All-Palestine 2004 Household survey 4,971 0.277 D1C,1C 0.0186 Assaf & Khawaja (2009)
  Gaza 2000/13 Premarital survey 156,635 39.9 1C,2C 0.0179 Sirdah (2014)
                 
Qatar Doha 2004 Outpatient clinic 1,515 44.5 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0271 Bener & Alali (2006)
  Doha 2008 Workplace survey 132 50 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0333 Sandridge et al. (2010)
                 
Saudi Arabia All-Saudi 1980s Hospital visitors