TABLE 2
CONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGE IN THE AMERICAS
Region/country Location/ community Collection period Study population Sample size Consanguinity(%) Consanguinity types Coefficient of inbreeding (?) Reference
Caribbean
Puerto Rico San Juan, north 1954 RC dispensation 6013 0.033 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0013 Freire-Maia (1957)
Cuba All-Cuba 1956/57 RC dispensation 2277 0.008 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0005 Freire-Maia (1968)
Pinar del Rio 2016/17 Household study 562 2 UN,1C,11/2C 0.0012 Trujillo & Cruz (2019)
Central America
Costa Rica All-Costa Rica 1954 RC dispensation 3833 0.034 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0011 Freire-Maia (1968)
El Salvador All- El Salvador 1956/57 RC dispensation 2494 0.049 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0014 Freire-Maia (1968)
Honduras All-Honduras 1956/57 RC dispensation 3759 0.034 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0011 Freire-Maia (1968)
Mexico Mexico City 1961/64 Obstetric inpatients 24333 0.003 >1C,1C,<1C - Stevenson et al. (1966)
All-Mexico 1956/57 RC dispensation 28192 0.013 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0003 Freire-Maia (1968)
Panama Panama City 1961/64 Obstetric inpatients 15523 0.017 >1C,1C,<1C - Stevenson et al. (1966)
All-Panama 1956/57 RC dispensation 350 0 - 0 Freire-Maia (1968)
North America
Canada All-Canada 1959 RC dispensation 51729 0.015 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0005 Freire-Maia (1968)
Québec 1962/71 RC dispensation 21874 1.3 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0003 De Braekeleer & Ross (1991)
U.S.A. All-U.S.A. 1959/60 RC dispensation 133228 0.002 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0001 Freire-Maia (1968)
Wisconsin 1941/55 RC dispensation 170914 0.2 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0001 Dewey et al. (1965)
Wisconsin 1972/81 RC dispensation 140289 0.1 1C,11/2C,2C <0.0001 Lebel (1983)
South America
Argentina Buenos Aires 1954 RC dispensation 23000 0.009 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0005 Freire-Maia (1957)
All-Argentina 1956/57 RC dispensation 51391 1.1 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0006 Freire-Maia (1968)
All-Argentina 1967/79 Obstetric inpatients 6494 0.2 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0001 Orioli et al. (1982)
All-Argentina 1980/81 Civil registration 212320 0.4 1C 0.0002 Castilla et al. (1992)
Buenos Aires State 1984 Civil registration 32690 0.7 1C 0.0004 Castilla et al. (1992)
All-Argentina 1967/96 Hospital births 20826 0.2 >1C,1C,11/2C,2C  0.0001 Liascovich et al. (2001)
Bolivia Bogota 1961/64 Obstetric inpatients 18497 0.02 >1C,1C,<1C - Stevenson et al. (1966)
All-Bolivia 1956/57 RC dispensation 4130 0.6 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0003 Freire-Maia (1968)
All-Bolivia 1967/96 Hospital births 958 0.2 1C  0.0001 Liascovich et al. (2001)
Brazil Sao Paulo 1961/64 Obstetric inpatients 14179 0.031 >1C,1C,<1C - Stevenson et al.. (1966)
Santa Catarina, south 1948/51 RC dispensation 4361 3.6 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0012 Freire-Maia (1957)
Rio de Janeiro, east 1954 RC dispensation 1272 0.016 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0009 Freire-Maia (1957)
Sergipe, east 1954 RC dispensation 3815 6.4 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0032 Freire-Maia (1957)
Alagoas, north-east 1954 RC dispensation 3566 11.7 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0055 Freire-Maia (1957)
Sao Paulo, Serra do Mar 1950/55 RC dispensation 1791 7.4 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0026 Saldanha (1960)
Sao Paulo, Vale do Paraibo 1950/55 RC dispensation 11108 0.5 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0002 Saldanha (1960)
Sao Paulo, Serra do Mantiqueira 1950/55 RC dispensation 1750 4 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0017 Saldanha (1960)
All-Brazil 1956/57 RC dispensation 212090 4.8 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0023 Freire-Maia (1957)
Rio Grande do Sul 1967 RC dispensation 15300 1.2 UN/AN,1C,11/2C, 2C 0.0005 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Santa Catarina 1967 RC dispensation 10064 1.3 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0005 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Parana 1967 RC dispensation 23383 0.9 UN/AN,1C,11/2C, 2C 0.0004 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Sao Paulo 1967 RC dispensation 39318 1.9 UN/AN,1C,11/2C, 2C 0.0006 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Guanabara 1967 RC dispensation 9835 1.6 UN/AN,1C,11/2C, 2C 0.0008 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Rio Janeiro 1967 RC dispensation 4070 0.015 UN/AN,1C,11/2C, 2C 0.0007 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Espirito Santo 1967 RC dispensation 1541 1.2 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0007 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Minas Gerais 1967 RC dispensation 38864 6.4 UN/AN,1C,11/2C, 2C 0.0027 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Bahia, Serra do Mar 1967 RC dispensation 8514 3.4 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0017 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Sergipe 1967 RC dispensation 1654 5.1 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0024 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Alagoas 1967 RC dispensation 7294 4.9 UN/AN,1C,11/2C, 2C 0.0022 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Pernambuco 1967 RC dispensation 10753 7 UN/AN,1C,11/2C, 2C 0.0032 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Paraiba 1967 RC dispensation 9952 12.8 UN/AN,1C,11/2C, 2C 0.0058 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Rio Grande do Norte 1967 RC dispensation 5104 7.7 UN/AN,1C,11/2C, 2C 0.0036 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Ceara 1967 RC dispensation 24196 7.9 UN/AN,1C,11/2C, 2C 0.0038 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Piaui 1967 RC dispensation 4832 8.2 UN/AN,1C,11/2C, 2C 0.0034 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Maranhão 1967 RC dispensation 8304 4.1 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0020 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Mato-Grosso 1967 RC dispensation 4071 0.011 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0005 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Goiás 1967 RC dispensation 3038 1.9 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0008 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Rondonia 1967 RC dispensation 345 1.5 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0006 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Acre 1967 RC dispensation 945 5.4 UN/AN,1C,11/2C, 2C 0.0023 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Amazonas 1967 RC dispensation 297 1.4 2C 0.0002 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Pará 1967 RC dispensation 4476 1.1 UN/AN,1C,11/2C, 2C 0.0003 da Fonseca & Freire-Maia (1970)
Porto Alegre, Whites 1965/70 Obstetric inpatients 2328 1.9 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0008 de Araújo & Salzano(1974)
Porto Alegre Blacks 1965/70 Obstetric inpatients 984 2 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0009 de Araújo & Salzano(1974)
Bahia 1970s Hospital visitors 925 7 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0019 Azevedo et al. (1980)
All-Brazil 1967/79 Obstetric inpatients 2328 1.1 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0005 Orioli et al. (1982)
Minas Gerais 1989 Household survey 252 15.1 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0027 Kaku & Freire-Maia (1992)
All-Brazil 1967/96 Hospital births 11558 1.3 >1C,1C,11/2C,2C  0.0007 Liascovich et al. (2001)
Rio Grande do Norte - Household survey 7639 0.137 UN,D1C,1C,11/2C, 2C 0.0063 Santos et al. (2010)
Chile Santiago 1961/64 Obstetric inpatients 23491 0.008 >1C,1C,<1C - Stevenson et al. (1966)
All-Chile 1956/57 RC dispensation 28596 1.3 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0007 Freire-Maia (1968)
Valparaiso 1957/66 RC dispensation 51828 0.7 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0006 Lazo et al. (1970)
Santiago 1967/79 Obstetric inpatients 2413 0.8 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0004 Orioli et al. (1982)
All-Chile 1967/96 Hospital births 6959 0.7 >1C,1C,11/2C,2C  0.0004 Liascovich et al. (2001)
Colombia Medellin 1961/64 Obstetric inpatients 20146 0.044 >1C,1C,<1C - Stevenson et al. (1966)
All-Colombia 1956/57 RC dispensation 34470 3 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0012 Freire-Maia (1968)
All-Colombia 1967/96 Hospital births 609 1.1 1C,2C  0.0005 Liascovich et al. (2001)
Ecuador All-Ecuador 1956/57 RC dispensation 3954 0.063 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0023 Freire-Maia (1968)
Quito 1967/79 Obstetric inpatients 2261 1.1 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0005 Orioli et al. (1982)
All-Ecuador 1967/96 Hospital births 2311 0.011 >1C,1C,11/2C,2C  0.0005 Liascovich et al. (2001)
Peru All-Peru 1956/57 RC dispensation 565 0.041 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0027 Freire-Maia (1968)
Lima 1967/79 Obstetric inpatients 203 1 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0006 Orioli et al. (1982)
All-Peru 1967/96 Hospital births 332 0.6 1C 0.0004 Liascovich et al. (2001)
Uruguay Montevideo 1952 RC dispensation 3955 0.011 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0006 Freire-Maia (1957)
All-Uruguay 1956/57 RC dispensation 2931 4.5 UN,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0019 Freire-Maia (1968)
Montevideo 1967/79 Obstetric Inpatients 921 0.9 1C,11/2C,2C 0.0005 Orioli et al. (1982)
All-Uruguay 1967/96 Hospital births 1407 0.7 >1C,1C,11/2C,2C  0.0004 Liascovich et al. (2001)
Venezuela All-Venezuela 1967/79 Obstetric inpatients 1517 0.013 D1C,1C,11/2C,2C 0.0007 Orioli et al. (1982)
All-Venezuela 1967/96 Hospital births 8592 1.4 >1C,1C,11/2C,2C  0.0006 Liascovich et al. (2001)